PCI investment cost by project relationship to upstream expansion (EUR Billion). the non-fossil gas technologies themselves (see Box 2 and Box 3). It is also important to reiterate that the other potential mainstream sources of non-fossil gas — biogas/biomethane and hydrogen via pyrolysis — have shown little potential and are not on a promising path to viability with respect to carbon neutrality, technical feasibility, cost, or overall environmental sustainability.30 Additionally, there is no consensus on what kinds are most likely to succeed or which sectors would need them, meaning that there is little clarity on how infrastructure needs might be distributed. Box 2 elaborates on these limitations. The 2017 PCIs list has 57 listed fossil gas expansion projects for a total of EUR 45.3 billion in project investment costs. Figure 2 shows that over four-fifths of this was for projects directly linked to fossil gas expansion by investment cost. See the online appendix accompanying this report for a summary table of projects and sources. We defined

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