A second analysis in two days outlines how climate change will cause “the greatest catastrophe in human history” in Africa. Yesterday, Christian Aid predicted that 182 million will die because of climate change by the end of the century.

Now evidence submitted to the official report that is being prepared for Tony Blair and Gordon Brown into the economic impact of climate change adds weight to the looming disaster awaiting Africa.

Europe’s flagship emissions trading scheme is suffering from a credibility crisis after it has emerged that many of the pollution limits have been far too lax. Critics argue that the limits need to be drastically improved or the scheme will do nothing to tackle climate change. They say governments have given industry "permission to pollute".

The Bush Administration has admitted that climate change is killing coral reefs and therefore, under US law, it is obliged to take action to reduce pollution killing the reefs. This month, the US National Marine Fisheries Service ruled that two species of coral - elkhorn and staghorn - must officially be registered as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act, partly because they are threatened by rising sea temperatures. They are the first species ever to be listed as a result of global warming.